Drugs that cause low testosterone

There are reports of acute overdosage with tramadol. Signs and symptoms can manifest by respiratory depression, sleepiness progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, seizures, slow heart rate, low blood pressure (hypotension), cardiac arrest, and death. Deaths due to overdose have been reported with abuse and misuse of tramadol.

Tramadol may interact with quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, ketoconazole, erythromycin, SSRIs, MAOIs, triptans, linezolid, lithium, St. John's wort, carbamazepine, rifampin, and digoxin. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of tramadol in pregnant women. Tramadol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Neonatal seizures, neonatal withdrawal syndrome, fetal death and stillbirth have been reported during post-marketing. Tramadol is not recommended for obstetrical preoperative medication or for post-delivery analgesia in nursing mothers because its safety in infants and newborns has not been studied.

Other drugs in the same class as tramadol include codeine hydrocodone (Zohydro ER), oxycodone (OxyContin, Roxicodone), methadone hydromorphone (Dilaudid, Exalgo), morphine (Avinza, Kadian, MSIR, MS Contin), fentanyl (Actiq, Duragesic). If you have questions about this drug talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or other medical professional.

REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information for tramadol.

Initial dose: Individualize dose based on patients prior analgesic experience
Maintenance dose: 15 to 60 mg up to every 4 hours as needed
Maximum dose: 360 mg in 24 hours

Comments: Doses higher than 60 mg have not been shown to improve pain relief and are associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects.

Individualization of dose should consider the following:
-Total daily dose, potency and specific characteristics of the opioid the patient has been previously taking
-Reliability of the relative potency estimate used to calculate the equivalent codeine dose needed
-Patient's degree of opioid tolerance
-General condition and medical status of the patient
-Concurrent medications
-Type and severity of pain
-Risk factors for abuse, addiction, or diversion, including a prior history of abuse, addiction, or diversion

Use: For the relief of mild to moderately severe pain where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate.

We know that the same sort of mechanisms involved in the development of tolerance can eventually lead to profound changes in neurons and brain circuits, with the potential to severely compromise the long-term health of the brain. For example, glutamate is another neurotransmitter that influences the reward circuit and the ability to learn. When the optimal concentration of glutamate is altered by drug abuse, the brain attempts to compensate for this change, which can cause impairment in cognitive function. Similarly, long-term drug abuse can trigger adaptations in habit or non-conscious memory systems. Conditioning is one example of this type of learning, in which cues in a person’s daily routine or environment become associated with the drug experience and can trigger uncontrollable cravings whenever the person is exposed to these cues, even if the drug itself is not available. This learned “reflex” is extremely durable and can affect a person who once used drugs even after many years of abstinence.

Probiotics are dietary supplements which contain beneficial or friendly bacteria or yeasts which may strengthen or exert health benefits to the body’s natural digestive system. Probiotics offer a way to restore the natural balance of your digestive system especially if you suffer from anyone of constipation, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, urgency or gas and bloating. Numerous research studies have shown benefits for sufferers of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis). Probiotics which contain the strain bifidobacterium infantis 35624 have been shown to relieve abdominal pain, bloating, urgency, constipation or diarrhea.

OTC PPIs are marketed for the treatment of frequent heartburn under the brand names Prilosec OTC, Zegerid OTC, and Prevacid 24 HR. OTC PPIs are labeled for 14 days of use, and this treatment course may be repeated every 4 months, up to 3 times per year. FDA acknowledges that consumers, either on their own, or based on a healthcare professional's recommendation, may take these products for periods of time that exceed the directions on the OTC label. This is considered an off-label (unapproved) use, based on the directions of use for OTC PPIs. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the risk of hypomagnesemia if they are recommending use of OTC PPIs for longer periods of time than in the OTC PPI label. FDA believes that OTC PPIs carry very little risk of hypomagnesemia when used according to the package directions, and therefore the Drug Facts box for the OTC PPIs will not be changed to include the risk of hypomagnesemia.

Drugs that cause low testosterone

drugs that cause low testosterone

Probiotics are dietary supplements which contain beneficial or friendly bacteria or yeasts which may strengthen or exert health benefits to the body’s natural digestive system. Probiotics offer a way to restore the natural balance of your digestive system especially if you suffer from anyone of constipation, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, urgency or gas and bloating. Numerous research studies have shown benefits for sufferers of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis). Probiotics which contain the strain bifidobacterium infantis 35624 have been shown to relieve abdominal pain, bloating, urgency, constipation or diarrhea.

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