Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
NuvaRing was first approved in The Netherlands on February 14, 2001, then by all 14 other countries then in the European Union on June 12, 2001, and in the United States by the . Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 3, 2001.   NuvaRing was first marketed in the United States in July 2002,  followed by a number European countries since then.  In March 2007, Organon announced the market launch of NuvaRing in Australia, bringing the total number of countries where NuvaRing is available to 32. A study by Danish researcher Dr. Øjvind Lidegaard in 2012 with million women found a times increase in the likelihood of venous thromboembolism when compared to users of non-hormonal based birth control. In Canada , Lidegaard's study led to a change in labeling warning of increased risk of blood clots, but not in the United States.