Lipoic Acid is a highly potent antioxidant that counteracts reactive free radicals in the mitochondria, the power plants of cells where energy for all cellular activities is generated. Some scientists believe that mitochondrial free radicals play an important role in human aging, and have theorized that extra amounts of free-radical inhibiting compounds such as lipoic acid may be able to help slow aging. Lipoic acid is also effective in recycling other antioxidants such as Vitamin E back into their original form after they detoxify free radicals. There also is evidence that lipoic acid can reduce glycation damage due to excess glucose in the blood, which may be involved in aging. Lipoic acid consists of two different forms (isomers) that have vastly different properties. The "R" form is the biologically active component (native to the body) that is responsible for lipoic acid's phenomenal antioxidant effect.
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The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.