Testosterone biosynthesis

DHT is a potent agonist of the AR, and is in fact the most potent known endogenous ligand of the receptor. It has an affinity (K d ) of to  nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (K d = to  nM) [43] and 15–30 times higher than that of adrenal androgens . [44] In addition, the dissociation rate of DHT from the AR is 5-fold slower than that of testosterone. [45] The EC 50 of DHT for activation of the AR is  nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC 50 =  nM). [46] In bioassays , DHT has been found to be - to 10-fold more potent than testosterone. [43]

Many guys drink for social reasons and the heart benefits, but I just cannot see the advantage considering the fact that it can affect testosterone, estrogen and cortisol levels in such a negative way.  This is especially important for use middle aged and beyond guys who are already struggling with these three hormones just from the aging process!  If you are exercising with a Low Fat Diet , for example, your heart will be strongly protected anyway.  In other words, you don't need alcohol.

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Hi Ali: Regarding the mint studies…I just saw this on Suppversity…regarding the difference between mints effects on male and female rats…..Spearmint (M. spicata): At least in women spearmint tea has been shown to increase estrogen and luteinizing hormone in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (Aktodgan. 2007). In a 2004 study that was conducted on male rodents, on the other hand, the daily administration of peppermint tea (M. spicata) for a period of 30days lead to significant increases in luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone and increases in serum testosterone, yet with the serious downside of “extensive degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium and spermatogenesis arrest compared with the findings in the testicular biopsies of the control group” (Aktogan. 2003) interesting for sure!

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Testosterone biosynthesis

testosterone biosynthesis

Hi Ali: Regarding the mint studies…I just saw this on Suppversity…regarding the difference between mints effects on male and female rats…..Spearmint (M. spicata): At least in women spearmint tea has been shown to increase estrogen and luteinizing hormone in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (Aktodgan. 2007). In a 2004 study that was conducted on male rodents, on the other hand, the daily administration of peppermint tea (M. spicata) for a period of 30days lead to significant increases in luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone and increases in serum testosterone, yet with the serious downside of “extensive degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium and spermatogenesis arrest compared with the findings in the testicular biopsies of the control group” (Aktogan. 2003) interesting for sure!

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