Testosterone et boldenone

Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth in individuals who have undergone androgen deprivation; increased hematocrit , which can require venipuncture in order to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea . [24] Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia , such as finasteride . [25] Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis , leading to, in some cases, infertility. [26] It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before starting therapy, and monitor PSA and hematocrit levels closely during therapy. [27]

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) and nitric oxide (NO) are two biologically active molecules playing important functions as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators of nerve impulse and as regulators of hormone production by endocrine organs. We studied the occurrence of D-Asp and NO as well as their effects on testosterone synthesis in the testis of boar. This model was chosen for our investigations because it contains more Leydig cells than other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence applied to cryostat sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of D-Asp and of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the same Leydig cells. D-Asp and NOS often co-existed in the same Leydig cells and were found, separately, in many other testicular cytotypes. D-Asp level was dosed by an enzymatic method performed on boar testis extracts and was 40+/- nmol/g of fresh tissue. NO measurement was carried out using a biochemical method by NOS activity determination and expressed as quantity of nitrites produced: it was +/- nmol/mg of tissue. The effects of the two molecules on steroid hormone production were evaluated by incubating testis homogenates, respectively with or without D-Asp and/or the NO-donor L-arginine (L-Arg). After incubation, the testosterone presence was measured by immunoenzymatic assay (EIA). These in vitro experiments showed that the addition of D-Asp to incubated testicular homogenates significantly increased testosterone concentration, whereas the addition of L-Arg decreased the hormone production. Moreover, the inclusion of L-Arg to an incubation medium of testicular homogenates with added D-Asp, completely inhibited the stimulating effects of this enantiomer. Our results suggest an autocrine action of both D-Asp and NO on the steroidogenetic activity of the Leydig cell.

Testosterone et boldenone

testosterone et boldenone

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