Various studies have found that MDMA use is associated with risky sexual behaviors. For example, both males and females who use MDMA are more likely than alcohol-drinking controls to engage in risky sexual behaviors (., without a condom). 85 MDMA use within the past 6 months is associated with initiating sex before age 14 and having two or more partners in the past 2 months. 86 In addition, people who use heavily report more sexual risk taking than those who use less often. People who use heavily are also more likely to have been tested for HIV, though they believe they are at low risk for contracting the disease. 87
To build the models, researchers first had to understand where ocean eddies, currents and waves carried the tiny oil particles. To understand surface water movement better, researchers set small, yellow boards made of wood afloat on the ocean's surface and asked beachgoers to report where they found these “drift cards” when they washed up on shore. This citizen scientist endeavor provided general information about how far the waves can carry a floating object and specific data points that can be used to improve models of where the oil disperses.
Federal spending and taxes would also be indirectly affected by the increases in real income for some people and the reduction in real income for others. As a group, workers with increased earnings would pay more in taxes and receive less in federal benefits of certain types than they would have otherwise. However, people who became jobless because of the minimum-wage increase, business owners, and consumers facing higher prices would see a reduction in real income and would collectively pay less in taxes and receive more in federal benefits than they would have otherwise. CBO concludes that the net effect on the federal budget of raising the minimum wage would probably be a small decrease in budget deficits for several years but a small increase in budget deficits thereafter. It is unclear whether the effect for the coming decade as a whole would be a small increase or a small decrease in budget deficits.